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Request, Error and Duration (RED)

asserts:request:total

In Asserts, the asserts:request:total records the total count of requests.
In SpringBoot, the request metrics for incoming requests are available through http_server_requests_seconds which is a Histogram. Similarly the request metrics for outgoing calls are available through http_client_requests_second which is also a Histogram. These metrics are mapped to asserts:request:total for incoming and outgoing requests.
# Incoming requests
- record: asserts:request:total
expr: http_server_requests_seconds_count
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
# Outgoing requests made through Spring classes like RestTemplate
- record: asserts:request:total
expr: http_client_requests_seconds_count
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
Asserts Meta Label
Description
asserts_name
Used by Asserts to keep track of the source metric name from which an Asserts standard metric is recorded.
asserts_request_type
Used by Asserts to categorize requests into different kinds. By default, for all supported http based frameworks, Asserts categorizes requests into inbound for incoming requests and outbound for outgoing http calls. But these can be arbitrary names to group apis e.g. timer_task.
asserts_request_context
Used by Asserts to identify a unique request. For http requests, whether inbound, or outbound, this typically maps to the relative part of the request URI with the high cardinality parameters stripped off. For e.g. /track/order/{} with {} being a placeholder for an order id. Frameworks like Springboot actuator Prometheus metrics have labels like uri. A relabeling rule is used to map uri to asserts_request_context.
asserts_source
Used by Asserts to identify which framework/instrumentation captured the metric.
In the above Asserts meta labels, except for asserts_request_context the remaining labels are specified in the recording rule itself. The asserts_request_context is specified through a relabeling rule as follows
- source_labels: [asserts_name, uri]
regex: http_.*_requests_seconds_.*;(.+) # spring boot server and client
target_label: asserts_request_context
replacement: $1
The label uri is available in both the server and client metrics. Notice how the asserts_name meta label is being used to target the relabeling only for the metrics of interest. Once these recording rules are added to Asserts, the following things will happen
  • The Request Rate will be computed and shown in the Service KPI Dashboard.
  • The Request Rate will be observed for anomalies, and the RequestRateAnomaly will be triggered when there are anomalies.

asserts:error:total

In Asserts, the asserts:error:total metric records the total count of errors, broken down by different error types. Let's add this rule for SpringBoot inbound and outbound requests
# Inbound request errors
- record: asserts:client:error:total
expr: http_server_requests_seconds_count{status=~"4.."}
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
- record: asserts:error:total
expr: http_server_requests_seconds_count {status=~"5.."}
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_error_type: server_errors
asserts_source: spring_boot
# Outbound request errors
- record: asserts:error:total
expr: http_client_requests_seconds_count{status=~"4.."}
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_error_type: client_errors
asserts_source: spring_boot
- record: asserts:error:total
expr: http_client_requests_seconds_count{status=~"5.."}
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_error_type: server_errors
asserts_source: spring_boot
Notice how the status label from the Spring metric is used to classify errors into client_errors and server_errors. Once these rules are added, the following things will happen
  • The Error Ratio will be computed for all request contexts and shown in the Service KPI Dashboard.
  • The ErrorRatioBreach will be triggered if the ratio breaches a certain threshold.
  • The ErrorBuildup (multi burn-multi window) will be triggered if the error budget breaches.
  • The Error Ratio will be observed for anomalies and ErrorRatioAnomaly will be triggered when there are anomalies.

asserts:latency:total and asserts:latency:count

Asserts computes the latency average using the asserts:latency:total and asserts:latency:count metrics. The former metric is the latency total time in seconds and the latter is the total number of requests. Let's add the recording rules for these two metrics from the respective Histogram metrics which have the _sum and _count metrics.
# Inbound Latency
- record: asserts:latency:total
expr: http_server_requests_seconds_sum
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_sum
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
- record: asserts:latency:count
expr: http_server_requests_seconds_count
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
# Outbound latency
- record: asserts:latency:total
expr: http_client_requests_seconds_sum
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_sum
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
- record: asserts:latency:count
expr: http_client_requests_seconds_count
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_count
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
Once these rules are added. The following things happen
  • Latency Average is computed for all requests and shown in the Service KPI Dashboards
  • The Latency Average will be observed for anomalies, and LatencyAverageAnomaly will be triggered when there are anomalies.

asserts:latency:p99

Similarly, we can record the latency p99 for the requests as follows
# Inbound requests latency P99
- record: asserts:latency:p99
expr: >
histogram_quantile (
0.99,
sum(rate(http_server_requests_seconds_bucket[5m]) > 0)
by (le, namespace, job, service, uri, asserts_request_context, asserts_env, asserts_site)
)
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_bucket
asserts_entity_type: Service
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
# Outbound requests latency P99
- record: asserts:latency:p99
expr: >
histogram_quantile (
0.99,
sum(rate(http_client_requests_seconds_bucket[5m]) > 0)
by (le, namespace, job, service, uri, asserts_request_context, asserts_customer, asserts_env, asserts_site)
)
labels:
asserts_name: http_client_requests_seconds_bucket
asserts_entity_type: Service
asserts_request_type: outbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
Once this is recorded, Asserts will show this metric in the Service KPI Dashboard and also start observing for the clock minutes when the Latency P99 exceeds a threshold. These minutes will be tracked through a total bad minutes counter. Based on the ratio of bad minutes to total minutes in a given time-window, the LatencyP99ErrorBuildup, a Multi-Burn, Multi-Window error-budget based alert will be triggered.

asserts:latency:service:p99

The Latency P99 for the entire service, regardless of different request contexts, can be recorded as follows
- record: asserts:latency:service:p99
expr: >
histogram_quantile (
0.99,
sum(rate(http_server_requests_seconds_bucket[5m]) > 0)
by (le, namespace, job, service, asserts_env, asserts_site)
)
labels:
asserts_name: http_server_requests_seconds_bucket
asserts_entity_type: Service
asserts_request_type: inbound
asserts_source: spring_boot
This metric is useful while creating a Latency SLO for the entire service.